OSI Reference Model – Easy way to remember




Application Layer: End user processes like file transfer, e-mail, network software services. E.g. Telnet, FTP


Presentation/Syntax Layer: Format, Encrypt data to send across network.


Session Layer: Establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications .


Transport Layer: End-to-end error recovery, flow control.


Network Layer: Switching, Routing, Addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing.


Data Link Layer: Encoding, decoding data packets into bits.

Media Access Control Sub-layer: Data access/transmit permissions.

Logical Link Sub-layer: Frame synchronization, flow control, error checking.


Physical Layer: Conveys the bit stream (electrical, light, radio)

E.g. Ethernet, RS232, ATM


An easy way to remember : use the following quotes

“All People Seem To Need Data Processing”

“People Do Not Trust Sales People Always”


13 thoughts on “OSI Reference Model – Easy way to remember

  1. this info is good but need more depth .Currently iam reading newtork plus and it’s good network + study giude fourth edition exam N10-003 by David Groth & Toby Skandier should pick this book up if your a student like me and or is more interested.

  2. this info is quite good. like Bruce said, the info should be more details. how about these can be implemented in real life?(eg: how email can be sent?)
    ok..tq for the info anyway~:)

    • You have really got a great intfamroive article here. I enjoy reading this kind of material. I share many of your same thoughts on this subject. I appreciate the effort you put into this article.

    • Qué decía yo la semana pasada sobre no abusar del pacharán y ponernos a hablar de la UEFA… bofetón y a seguir sufriendo. ¿Era ayer el día para sacar a Esparza con todo lo que nos jugábamos? ¿Nadie más ve que Daddie no da una a derechas? ¿Qué más tiene que hacer Font para jugar? Esperaré al final de temporada para pedir el despido de Ziganda, porque no se puede ser peor entrenador. 

  3. I think the idea here was to make it simple so that it would be a little easier to remember not just the order of the layers, but what they do. Once you start throwing more and more information it begins to get more difficult to keep them all straight. I think what’s here is a good overview to help remember the functions and the order which can be built upon later by other sources.

  4. whoah this weblog is great i really like
    studying your posts. Keep up the good work! You
    realize, a lot of people are hunting round for this info,
    you could aid them greatly.

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